Sociocultural Integration Policy:
Major Theoretical Perspectives
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Professor of Department of Social Philosophy and Ethnology, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org_id: 239185 |
This paper is devoted to research of the key theoretical approaches to analysis of sociocultural integration policy as a tool for resolving regional conflicts. It explores the theoretical tradition of the integration analysis, related to the conceptual confrontation of theories of ethnic conflict, identity-based conflict and citizenship, multiculturalism, neo-functionalism, normative conceptions of political integration. The contradiction lies in the interpretation of integration as a means of de-escalation of ethno-regional conflicts in pluralistic societies. Conflict theory is based on the analysis of conflict nature of ethnicity; multiculturalists come from the normativity of cultural pluralism and ethnic identity; neo-functionalists, citizenship theorists and political integration researchers interpret the status of ethnic groups from the standpoint of equality of opportunity and institutional imperative of sociocultural integration. Conflict resolution theory focuses on the ability of the sociocultural integration policy in the transformation of destructive identity-based conflicts into conflicts of interests. The author considers the systemic factors of regional conflicts and emphasizes destabilizing role of re-politicization of ethnicity in the North Caucasus. Contradictions between the systemic modernization and social disintegration are the primary source of identity-based conflicts. Structurally, escalation of violence in regional conflicts is determined by the intensity and scope of ethnic mobilization and social dissatisfaction. Integration policy has fundamental goals of ensuring regional safety and overcoming ethnic contradictions in their most destructive form of identity-based conflicts. Sociocultural integration policy must serve as a conflict-preventive tool, i.e. a pro-active action on the conflict environment by way of structural solutions to regional problems, transformation and rationalization of ethnic contradictions.
Almond G., Verba S. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. (Russ. ed.: Almond G., Verba S. Grazhdanskaya kul’tura: politicheskie ustanovki i demokratiya v pyati stranakh. Moscow: Mysl’. 2014. 500 p.)
Bernard P. Social Cohesion: A Critique. Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Department of Canadian Heritage and Canadian Policy Research Networks. 1999. 26 p.
Blagojevic B. Causes of Ethnic Conf lict: a Conceptual Framework. – Journal of Global Change and Governance. 2009. Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 1‑25. URL: https://peaceprognosis.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/ causesofethnicconflict.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016).
Chapman J. System Failure: Why Governments Must Learn to Think Differently. London: Demos. 2002. 324 p.
Esteban J., Mayoral L., Ray D. Ethnicity and Conflict: Theory and Facts. – Science. 2012. Vol. 336. No. 6083. P. 858‑865. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1222240
Fearon J.D., Laitin D.D. Explaining Interethnic Cooperation. – The American Political Science Review. 1996. Vol. 90. No. 4. P. 715‑735. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2945838
Fennema M., Tillie J. Political Participation and Political Trust in Amsterdam: Civic Communities Ethnic Networks. – Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 1999. No. 25. P. 703‑726.
De Vreede E. Culture, Civilization and Identity. – Polis. Political Studies. 2012. No. 5. P. 17‑23. (In Russ.) URL: http://www.politstudies.ru/files/File/2012/5/3.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016).
Gaman-Golutvina O.V. Regional Politics as a Permanent Turbulence. Round Table of the “Polis” Journal. Regional Political Processes: How “Subjective” Are Subjects of the Russian Federation. – Polis. Political Studies. 2013. No. 5. P. 59‑76. (In Russ.) URL: http://www.politstudies.ru/files/File/2013/5/6.pdf (accessed 17.12.2016).
Jenson J. Mapping Social Cohesion: The State of Canadian Research. Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Department of Canadian Heritage and Canadian Policy Research Networks. 1998. 49 p. URL: http://cprn.org/documents/15723_en.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016)
Habermas J. Religion, Law and Politics. On Political Justice in a Multicultural World-Society. – Polis. Political Studies. 2010. No. 2. P. 7‑21. (In Russ.) URL: http://www.politstudies.ru/files/File/2010/2/2.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016).
Horowitz D.L. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2001. 715 p.
Huntington S. Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. (Russ. ed.: Huntington S. Kto my? Vyzovy amerikanskoi natsional’noi identichnosti. Moscow: AST Publisher. 2004. 635 p.)
Kivisto P., Faist T. Beyond A Border: The Causes and Consequences of Contemporary Immigration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2010. 350 p.
Kymlicka W. Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007. 386 p.
Levitt P., Jaworsky N.B. Transnational Migration Studies: Past Developments and Future Trends. – Annual Review Sociology. 2007. No. 33. P. 129‑156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131816
Lockwood D. Some Remarks on “The Social System”. – The British Journal of Sociology. 1956. Vol. 7. No. 2. P. 134‑146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/587854
Martiniello М. Political Participation, Mobilization and Representation of Immigrants and Their Offspring in Europe. – Willy Brandt Series of Working Papers in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, School of International Migration and Ethnic Relations. Malmö: Malmö University. 2005. No. 1/05. P. 1‑23.
Martyanov V.S. Global Modern, Post-materialist Values and Peripheral Capitalism in Russia. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No. 1. P. 83‑98. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2014.01.06 (In Russ.)
Morales L., Morariu M. Is ‘Home’ a Distraction? The Role of Migrants’ Transnational Practices in Their Political Integration into Receiving-Country Politics. – Social Capital, Political Participation and Migration in Europe: Marking Multicultural Democracy Work? Ed. by L. Morales, M. Guigni. L.: Palgrave Macmillan. 2011. P. 140‑171.
Morawska E. Disciplinary Agendas and Analytic Strategies on Immigrant Transnationalism: Challenges of Interdisciplinary Knowledge. – International Migration Review. 2003. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 611‑640. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1747‑7379.2003.tb00152.x
Paris R. At War’s End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict. N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 304 p.
Peregudov S.P. National-state Identity and the Problems of the Russian State’s Consolidation. – Polis. Political Studies. 2011. No. 3. P. 141‑163. (In Russ.) URL: http://www.politstudies.ru/files/File/2011/3/12. pdf (accessed 17.12.2016).
Portes A., Rumbaut R.G. Immigrant America. A Portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2006. 450 p.
Rex J. Multiculturalism in Europe and North America. – Nations and Nationalism. 1995. Vol. 1. No. 2. P. 243‑259. URL: https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/jaro2006/SOC766/um/John_Rex_on_Multiculturalism.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016).
Rothman J. Resolving Identity-Based Conflict: In Nations, Organizations, and Communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1997. 270 p.
Rothman J., Alberstein M. Individuals, Groups and Intergroups: Understanding the Role of Identity in Conflict and Its Creative Engagement. – Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution. 2013. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 631‑657. URL: https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/77275/OSJDR_V28N3_631. pdf?sequence=1 (accessed 12.12.2016)
Ryazantsev S.V. On Linguistic Migrant Integration as New Perspective of Russian Migrant Policy. – Socis. Sociological Studies. 2014. No. 9. P. 25‑29. (In Russ.) URL: http://socis.isras.ru/files/File/2014/2014_9/25‑29_ Ryazantsev.pdf (accessed 12.12.2016).
Semenenko I.S. Sociocultural Modernization and Identity Conflict. – Reforming Russia. Yearbook. No. 12. Moscow: Noviy Hronograf Publishing. P. 111‑131. (In Russ.)
Stone M., Destrempes H., Foote J., Jeannotte M.S. Immigration and Cultural Citizenship: Responsibilities, Rights and Indicators. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. 2007. 339 p.
Tillie J., Slijper B. Immigrant Political Integration and Ethnic Civic Communities in Amsterdam. – Identities, Affiliations, and Allegiances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006. P. 72‑99.
Vermeulen H., Slijper B. Multiculturalism and Culturalism. A Social Scientific Critique of the Political Philosophy of Multiculturalism. – Nationalism, Regional Multiculturalism and Democracy. Center for European Integration Studies. 2002. No. 2. P. 7‑42.
Zapata-Barrero R., Gropas R. Active Immigrants in Multicultural Contexts: Democratic Challenges in Europe. – European Multiculturalisms: Cultural, Religious and Ethnic Challenges. Ed. by A. Triandafyllidou, T. Modood, N. Meer. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 2012. P. 167‑191.
Eurasian integration and the clash of values. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No6
The terrorism and the problems of the Basque Country. – Polis. Political Studies. 2013. No2
Avksentyev V.A., Aksyumov B.V.,
«Clash of Civilizations» in regional aspect: the Caucasus and the Balkans. – Polis. Political Studies. 2007. No4
Political theory. – Polis. Political Studies. 2012. No3
Ideological component in the evolution of European Union. – Polis. Political Studies. 2013. No1