Russian Educational Policy and the Conflicts of Interests in the Field of Innovation
Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com_id: 639295 | ORCID: 0000-0003-4096-9804 | RESEARCHER_ID: AAB-1392-2019
Training for an innovative knowledge-based economy is a area of conflict between the most influential participants thereof – the state, business, universities, research and academic institutions, and students and their families. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study is a set of provisions that reveal cooperation between universities, research organizations, and manufacturing companies as a necessary condition for the development of the Russian economy and society. The empirical basis is the results of an expert survey of the heads of leading organizations in the scientific, educational, and industrial areas, as well as federal and regional government bodies with practical experience in the field of innovation. The article critically examines the models of educational policy and emphasizes that the attitude to innovation is inherent in ideology and politics. Economic, legal, and social institutions and relations can both stimulate and limit them. It is shown that the current educational policy in Russia is mixed: this contributes to the growth of attractiveness of the innovation sphere; however, this sphere remains inaccessible and not attractive to a wide mass of potential participants due to the conservative orientations of the ruling elite and the concentration of financial and material resources in its hands. As a result, talented graduates of the best universities prefer either to leave the country or adopt the strategies and behavior of the ruling elite, turning into a service class – “rent” techno-elite. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of contradictions between the main participants in the innovation process. The critical attitude business holds to the desire which scientific and educational institutions have to engage in innovative entrepreneurship is revealed. The main claims are related to the weakness of technological developments, lack of knowledge of the market, lack of material and technical base, and excessive bureaucracy. It is shown that participants in innovation activity are more oriented towards interaction with state structures than among themselves, which is explained by the dominant role of the state in the formation and development of the innovation sphere. It is predicted that the innovative effects of educational policy depend not only on the elite, the techno-elite, but also the support of society.
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