The Presidency Institution in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe as Indicator of the Process of Political Transformation
The article suggests and substantiates an original typology of presidential systems now existing in the world; they are differentiated according to seven criteria: (1) composition of the electorate; (2) method of election; (3) combining/dividing the posts of the head of state and of the head of government; (4) mechanism of government formation; (5) existence/absence of the president's right to dissolve parliament; (6) existence/absence of restrictions for reelection; (7) order of filing the presidential post. On analyzing from the angle of these criteria the presidency institution in former socialist countries, the author comes to the conclusion that in most states of Central and Eastern Europe an especial type of presidential system has formed, representing an intermediary variant between the French and the soft parliamentary models. The author's analysis demonstrates that in the absence of direct external pressure, the formation of a peculiar semipresidential system in a post-authoritarian European country with medium level of development and with republican form of government is but a natural result of peaceful political transformation.
Lvova E.L., Nam I.V., Naumova N.I.,
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