An Essay of Typology of Spanish Conservatism
The article proposes a typology of Spanish conservatism as political ideology that has been retaining certain doctrinal continuity for the past five centuries. Distinguishing three stages within the history of Spanish conservatism - the genetic stage (late 15th to late 18th century), the classical one (late 18th to the 60s of the 20th century) and the contemporary one (since the 1960s), - the author demonstrates that their specificity was conditioned by the character of the challenges each time confronted by Spanish society: indeed, search for an answer to the Protestant challenge (Reformation of the 16th century) determined its genesis and general particulars; then, following the answer to the liberal challenge (Enlightenment of the 18th century and the French revolution), classical elements of the conservative doctrine formed; finally, the answer to the right-radical challenge (Francoism) called forth the appearance of contemporary synthetic forms. Besides, anyway, at all the stages there were three trends in Spanish conservatism, diverging in their notions about forms and methods of answering outward challenges. Applying the terminology that has become established in Spanish science, the author designates them as reactionary, traditionalist and renovatory, and analyzes in detail historical evolution of each of them.
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