Education in the US “Soft Power” Policy
Senior Lecturer, Comparative Politics Department, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), email@example.com_id: 711990 |
Buy a digital version in Polismag
Today the United States occupies the top lines of the world ratings of “soft power”. One of the most important criteria by which experts assess the degree of effectiveness of this mechanism is the level of involvement of the state on the world stage of its educational potential. Thus, education, along with public diplomacy and various cultural projects, acts as a key tool to achieve influence in modern international relations. Specific measures taken by the United States for the development of education in the international context, the main documents that have become the basis for this process, are considered. Also, special attention is paid to the direct directions of the international educational policy of the United States and the analysis of its implementation in the key areas included in the sphere of national interests of this state. The author draws a conclusion about the uneven degree of use of education as a “soft power” in different years, about a certain decline (expressed, including a decrease in funding) and under the current presidential administration. However, despite some instability, the United States continues to consider education as a key tool to spread its influence, implementing numerous programs and promoting various educational projects around the world.
Buy a digital version in Polismag
Bu L. 1999. Educational Exchange and Cultural Diplomacy in the Cold War. – Journal of American Studies. Vol. 33. No. 3. Part 1: Women in America. P. 393-415.
Cooper R. 2004. Hard Power, Soft Power and the Goals of Diplomacy. – American Power in the 21st Century. Ed. by D. Held, M. Koenig-Archibugi. Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity.
Cox M. 2010. Soft Power and US Foreign Policy. Theoretical, historical and contemporary Perspectives. N.Y.: Routledge.
Guerra S.L., Chavez M.F. 2006. Neo-Liberal Educational Reform in Latin America. – Revista Electronica de Investigacion Educativa. Vol. 8. No. 1. http://redie.ens.uabc.mx/vol8no1/contents-lopez.html (accessed 04.02.2019).
Kurlantzick J. 2005. The Decline of American Soft Power. – Carnegie Endowment. URL: https://carnegieendowment.org/files/Kurlantzick.pdf (accessed 04.02.2019).
Lewin-Epstein M. 2007. The Strength of Soft Power: The EU and MERCOSUR in a Hegemonic World System. Department of International Relations. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Jerusalem. 109 p. URL: https://en.davis.huji.ac.il/sites/default/files/davisinsten/files/soft_power_eu_and_mercosur_-_michal_lewin-epstein.pdf (accessed 04.02.2019).
Nye J. 2005. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. N.Y.: Public Affairs. Nye J. 2008. The Powers to Lead. Oxford University Press.
Nye J. 2011. The Future of Power. N.Y.: Public Affairs.
Obama B. 2006. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. N.Y.: Crown Publishers.
Rugh W.A. 2014. Front Line Public Diplomacy: How US Embassies Communicate with Foreign Publics. N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137444158
Rugh W.A. 2016. American Soft Power and Public Diplomacy in the Arab World. – Palgrave Communications. Vol. 3. No. 16104. https://doi.org/10.1057/palcomms.2016.104
Schultz G. 1997. Diplomacy in the Information Age. – Keynote Addresses from the Virtual Diplomacy Conference. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. URL: https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/pwks18.pdf (accessed 04.02.2019).
Seelke C.R. 2007. Overview of Education Issues and Programs in Latin America. CRS Report for Congress. URL: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS22778.pdf (accessed 04.02.2019).
Smoot T. 2012. United States Soft Power – Free and Open Media to Bolster Afghan Democracy. adio Azadi: A Case Study. Masters Thesis. Charles University.
Braterskij M.V., Skriba A.S. 2014. Soft Power Concept in U.S. Foreign Strategy. – International Organisations Research Journal. Vol. 9. No. 2. P. 130-144. (In Russ.)
Filimonov G.YU. 2012. Kul’turno-informacionnye mekhanizmyvneshnejpolitiki SSHA.Istokiinovayareal’nost’ [Cultural and Informational Mechanisms of US Foreign Policy. Origins and New Reality]. Moscow: RUDN. (In Russ.)
Frolova O.A. 2013. “Soft Power” of Foreign Policy Activity of the USA: Institutions and Mechanisms of Formation. – RUDN Journal of Political Science. No. 3. P. 49-54. (In Russ.) URL: http://journals.rudn.ru/political-science/article/view/8895/8346 (accessed 04.02.2019).
Setov R.A 2017. Problema ehffektivnosti v publichnojdiplomatii SSHA: ot programmy Fulbrajta do reform Gosdepartamenta 1998 g. [The Problem of Efficiency in US Public Diplomacy: from the Fulbright Program to the 1998 State Department Reform]. – XV Mezhdunarodnaya konferenciya “Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie Rossijskoj Federacii: vyzovy i perspektivy”. 25-27 maya 2017 g. [XV International Conference “Public Administration of the Russian Federation: Challenges and Prospects.” May 25-27, 2017]. Moscow. (In Russ.)
Smirnov A.I., Kohtyulina I.N. 2012. Global’naya bezopasnost’ i “myagkaya sila 2.0”: vyzovy I vozmozhnosti dlya Rossii [Global Security and Soft Power 2.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Russia]. Moscow: VNII geosistem. (In Russ.)
Usacheva EH.I. 2016. “Myagkasila” vo vneshnej politike SSHA na sovremennom ehtape. Magisterskaya dissertatsiya [“Soft Power” in US Foreign Policy at the Present Stage. Master’s Dissertation]. Moscow. (In Russ.)
Moscow University Bulletin. Series 25. International relations and world politics: 5 years on track. – Polis. Political Studies. 2014. No5
Voevoda E.V., Belogurov A.Yu.,
Axiology of Education in the Discourse of Contemporary Policy. – Polis. Political Studies. 2018. No6
Lebedeva M.M., Melville A.Yu.,
Comparative Political Science, World Politics, International Relations: Development of the Subject Spheres. – Polis. Political Studies. 1999. No4
«Soft Power» in China’s Development Strategy. – Polis. Political Studies. 2009. No4
Introducing the «Moscow University Bulletin. Series 25. International relations and world politics». – Polis. Political Studies. 2010. No1